Sultanate of Darfur Bulgaria thus enlarged its … In areas populated with Romanians, the Romanian troops were warmly welcomed, and the locals provided them considerable assistance in terms of provisions, billeting and guiding. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Video with the redrawing of the borders after the First World War, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, Negotiations of Bulgaria with the Central Powers and the Entente, Military convention between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria,, Battles of World War I involving Austria-Hungary, Battles of World War I involving Bulgaria, Battles of World War I involving the Ottoman Empire, Military operations of World War I involving France, Military operations of World War I involving Germany, Articles with Romanian-language sources (ro), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, August 27, 1916 – December 1917, and November 10–11, 1918, 330,000–430,000 Romanian civilian dead from war-related causes between 1914 and 1918. Many novels have been written on this subject, including Liviu Rebreanu's Forest of the Hanged. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian front. The Romanian warship counterattacked, damaging the submarine's periscope and conning tower and forcing her to retreat. The Romanian Land Forces, supported by the Danube Division of the Romanian Navy and by the actions of the Romanian cruiser NMS Elisabeta at the mouths of the Danube, managed to prevent the Central Powers from advancing into the Danube Delta, keeping it under Romanian control until the end of the war. On the night of August 27, 1916, three Romanian armies (First, Second and Northern Army [ro]), deployed according to the Romanian campaign plan (Hypothesis Z), launched the Battle of Transylvania through the Carpathians. They pursued to encircle and smash the Romanian and Russian forces through a blow dealt to the northwest in the direction of Focșani, Mărășești and Adjud, conjugated with another blow that had to start from the mountains through the Oituz and Trotuș valleys towards Târgu Ocna and Adjud (the Third Battle of Oituz). 2, p. 829, Glenn E. Torrey, "The Battle of Turtucaia (Tutrakan) (2–6 September 1916): Romania's Grief, Bulgaria's Glory", General Stefan Toshev 1921 “The activity of the 3rd Army in Dobrudja in 1916”, p.68; Действията на III армия в Добруджа 1916, стр. It is the day of the union of all branches of our nation. A notable contribution to the reconstruction of the Romanian army was made by the 1,600-strong French military mission led by General Henri Mathias Berthelot, which supervised the process and helped retrain Romanian troops.  Belgium (1940), Greece (1940-1941) The Romanians' greatest concerns in negotiations were the avoidance of a conflict that would have to be fought on two fronts (one in Dobruja with Bulgaria and one in Transylvania) and written guarantees of Romanian territorial gains after the war. The plan envisaged the checking of the advance of the German Ninth Army from the north and north-west, as well as the encirclement and annihilation of the German-Bulgarian-Turkish units deployed south-east of Bucharest. There, a conspicuous figure was cut by Ecaterina Teodoroiu, who was to enter the consciousness of all Romanians as the "Heroine of the Jiu". On the next day, this area was expanded, with 8 Bulgarian settlements ending up in Romanian hands. First World War Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918), Only police troops Animated by the holy duty imposed upon us, and determined to bear manfully all the sacrifices inseparable from an arduous war, we will march into battle with the irresistible élan of a people firmly confident in its destiny. Later that year, an Axis-backed Bulgaria was ceded Dobruja. Toward the end of the month, extreme frost gave the Bulgarians an opportunity to enter the Danube Delta. [68][69], Aware of the complex strategic situation, the Romanian Command lent its military policy a clear, realistic orientation of committing the entire population to battle, trying to act efficiently in keeping with the national goals and in harmony with the large-scale operations worked out at the coalition level. While Carol wanted to enter World War I as an ally of the Central Powers, the Romanian public and the political parties were in favor of joining the Triple Entente. A complex development is taking place in Moldova too, but Russia-friendly Greece and Cyprus do not even dare to block anti-Russian sanctions. [63], The re-organization also involved the other troops (combat engineers, air force, navy) and services, which underwent notable improvements. Many of the previously loyal soldiers decided that it was much better to risk their lives through desertion, rather than shoot their ethnical conationals. [64], Considerable progress was achieved with the technical-material equipment of the army by means of its provisioning with armament, ammunition and other combat resources from inside the country, but even more importantly from abroad. The Austro-Hungarians also sent four divisions to reinforce their lines, and by the middle of September, the Romanian offensive was halted. Under the pressure of the ultimatum, the Romanian government agreed to enter the war on the side of the Entente, although the situation on the battle fronts was not favorable. Uruguay Mackensen's success was favoured by the failure of the Allies to fulfill the obligation they had assumed through the military convention, by virtue of which they had to mount an offensive on the Macedonian front and the conditions in which the Russians deployed insufficient troops on the battlefront in the south-east of Romania. 2, p. 833, România în anii primului război mondial, vol.  Portuguese Timor (1942-1945) [33], The ethnic Romanians in Austria-Hungary entered the war from the very beginning, with hundreds of thousands of Transylvanian and Bukovinian Romanians being mobilized throughout the war. After several defensive victories in 1917 at Mărăști, Mărășești, and Oituz, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war. Torrey, Glenn E. "Romania in the First World War: The Years of Engagement, 1916-1918". On 7 September, under the Treaty of Craiova, Southern Dobruja (which Bulgaria had lost after the Romanian invasion during the Second Balkan War in 1913), was ceded to Bulgaria … [86] Furthermore, Russian reinforcements in Romania did not materialize to the number of 200,000 soldiers initially demanded. Her numbers from the start were too small, too indifferently trained, and too weakly supplied with guns. In order to increase the effect of the offensive and draw as many enemy troops as possible northwest of the town of Focșani, the actions of the Romanian Second and Russian Fourth Armies had to precede those of the Romanian First Army. Czechoslovakia (1918-1919), Co-belligerents It stayed on the south side of the Danube river and headed towards Constanța. The three great battles, decisive for the Romanian nation's destiny, delivered at Mărăști, Mărășești and Oituz, represented a turning point in the war on the Eastern front. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Armistice of Focșani • Treaty of Bucharest • Protocol of Berlin, The counteroffensive of the Central Powers, Министерство на войната, Щаб на войската, Българската армия в Световната война 1915 - 1918, Vol. Jelavich, Barbara. The political life in unoccupied territory adopted a fundamental goal to achieve national consensus to find the means to conclude a successful liberation war. In total, from 1916 to 1918, German seaplanes serving on the Romanian front were of three types: Friedrichshafen FF.33, Hansa-Brandenburg W.12 and Rumpler 6B. Allied numerical superiority was almost 2:1. China (1917-1918) A separate Romanian offensive, carried out by the 1st Infantry Division, was much more limited in its aims and it succeeded: capturing the west bank of the Cerna River within the Banat region. Bulgaria was further forced to pay reparations and limit its standing army, much in the sense of Versailles for … On 1 December, the Romanian army went ahead with the offensive along the Argeș and Neajlov rivers. Page 51, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. [28] Within two days of her own declaration, according to one source, Romania found herself at war with all the Central Powers.[29]. Erich Ludendorff summarized the end of the 1916 Romanian Campaign as follows: We had beaten the Rumanian Army; to annihilate it had proved impossible. Alexandru Marghiloman became the new German-sponsored prime minister. Portugal (1916-1918) [64], In January 1917, the Romanian river gunboat Smârdan was sunk by German shore artillery, three sailors were killed. Reasons for the attack were lack of Bulgarian wars, Romanian attack on Indonesia and a rumor for new missions including kills against Natural enemy. It inflicted important losses upon the Austro-Hungarians and Germans, who relinquished a 35 km-wide and 20 km-deep area and sustained heavy casualties and losses in combat resources. [51] In November, the German submarine UC-15 was sent on a minelaying mission off Sulina and never returned, being sunk by her own mines. This could only be UC-15, whose systems most likely malfunctioned after being forced to submerge in the shallow waters, upon encountering the Romanian torpedo boat. During the first stage (6-12 August), the troops of the Romanian First Army, together with Russian forces, managed to arrest the enemy advance and forced the Germans to change the direction of their attack toward the northwest gradually.  Honduras (1941-1945) Radomir Putnik • Živojin Mišić • Stepa Stepanović • Petar Bojović • Pavle Jurišić Šturm;  France: Maurice Sarrail • Adolphe Guillaumat • Louis Franchet d'Espèrey;  United Kingdom: Bryan Mahon • George Milne;  Kingdom of Greece: Panagiotis Danglis, Morava Offensive • Ovče Pole Offensive • Kosovo Offensive (1915) • Battle of Krivolak, First battle of Doiran • Battle of Florina (Lerin) • Struma operation • Monastir Offensive, Second battle of Doiran • 2nd Crna Bend • Second battle of Monastir, Battle of Skra-di-Legen • Battle of Dobro Pole • Third battle of Doiran, Nikola Zhekov • Panteley Kiselov • Stefan Toshev • Todor Kantardzhiev • Ivan Kolev, Romania: Ian Beckett says that Bulgaria did not issue a declaration of war prior to its attack of 31 August. The dates of the Bulgarian and Ottoman declarations of war are disputed. This view was brushed aside by Whitehall, and Thomson signed a Military Convention with Romania on 13 August 1916. Advances by other parts of Falkenhayn's Ninth Army also pushed through the mountains; the Romanian army was being ground down by the constant battle and their supply situation was becoming critical. This created favorable conditions for a deep penetration into the defensive disposition and the annihilation of the enemy group. The German High Command created the Army Group Kühne, headquartered in Petroșani, under the command of General Viktor Kühne (de). This linkage of the Transylvanian issue with the Sino-Soviet conflict unnerved the Romanians and pressure from Moscow was stepped up in the same month when a plan to create an economic region encompassing much of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, half of Romania, and part of Bulgaria was launched in the Soviet capital. Iran (1943-1945), Governments in exile Emirate of Jabal Shammar Idrisid Emirate of Asir (1915-1918) The Romanian Army gained much from its involvement in the Second World War.  Costa Rica (1941-1945) Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf: Architect of the Apocalypse p.192.  Haiti (1941-1945) [23], In 1915, Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent speaker of French, was sent to Bucharest as British military attaché on the initiative of Lord Kitchener to bring Romania into the war. She had attempted a strategic problem which only a wild freak of fortune could have permitted her to solve. Mackensen's troops were able to capture Focșani on 8 January, but an attempt to break the Siret River line on 19 January failed. The war was a success and the Ottoman Empire lost almost its entire European territories. 834-835, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. The re-organization pursued the reduction of the effectives of the "Operations Army" to parameters that suited the country's resources for waging a long campaign. Proclamation by King Ferdinand, 28 August 1916[35]. Mackensen's attack threatened to cut off half the Romanian army. French Morocco (1939-1940, 1942-1945) Vinogradov, "The Years of Neutrality", 460. 833-834, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. According to the terms of the treaty, Romania had to return southern Dobruja to Bulgaria, give Austria-Hungary control of the passes in the Carpathian Mountains, and lease its oil wells to… Read More; San Stefano. [81] Despite this the Germans represented only 22% of the Central Power's forces that took part in the campaign compared to the Austro-Hungarian 46% and combined Bulgarian and Ottoman 32%.[82]. Bulgaria had fought on the side of the Central Powers in WW1 (Germany, Austro-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire) so, following their defeat, Bulgaria too suffered from harsh treaty settlements. Its final form ready in late May 1917, the operations plan for the Romanian front called for the mounting of a general offensive in the Focșani-Nămoloasa sector with a view to completely pin down all enemy forces there, annihilate the main enemy groups operating there (the German Ninth Army) and support the Kerensky Offensive. The Romanians and Russians were forced to withdraw out of Constanța (occupied by the Central Powers on 22 October). [87], Romanian invasion of Austria-Hungary, August 1916, Central Powers counterattack, September–October 1916, Operations in Romania, November 1916 to January 1917, Operations in Dobruja, October 19 to November 11, 1916, < Kingdom of Romania | History of Romania | Greater Romania >, Nikola Zhekov • Kliment Boyadzhiev • Dimitar Geshov • Georgi Todorov • Ivan Lukov • Stefan Nerezov • Vladimir Vazov, Serbia: Bulgaria - Bulgaria - World War II: After World War II began, Bulgaria proclaimed neutrality. However, under the circumstances in which the Russian High Command decided unilaterally to stall any offensive as a result of the grave situation created on the front in Galicia and Bukovina following the failure of the Kerensky Offensive and the counter-attack of the Central Powers, the Romanian General Headquarters saw itself compelled to discontinue the offensive throughout the entire territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Black Sea. [55], On 3 December, the Romanian river torpedo boat Căpitan Valter Mărăcineanu was sunk on the Danube by a mine, 1 sailor was killed.[57][58]. They demanded an agreement not to make a separate peace with the Central Powers, equal status at the future peace conference, Russian military assistance against Bulgaria, an Allied offensive in the direction of Bulgaria, and the regular shipment of Allied war supplies. [56] Faced with the overwhelming superiority of the invading forces, the Romanian army, its ranks thinned from the previous actions, inferior in equipment and lacking Russian support, failed to check the enemy advance. Dervish state [44], Particular heed was paid to the actions carried on for the defense of the Carpathians' alignment, the fights on the Jiu River. Near the town of Hațeg ; the attack halted the Romanian Army was through! Only German naval bombers on the Mărășești front combined with an Austro-Hungarian-German offensive Oituz! 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