Finally, the armistice also demanded that Finland must expel German troops from its territory, which was the cause of the Lapland War. The Finnish defenders were worn down by the continual attacks, the artillery, and the aerial bombardments, the cold, and the lack of relief and of replacements.  • Indonesian National Revolution. In spite of this, Finland retained an independent, democratic form of government.  • Blitzkrieg Finally, a southwards drive from the north was to capture the Petsamo region. But dont forget, Finnish army sit in strong concrete bunkers with mine-fields around it. However, material support from other countries was small and none of Finland's neighbours were willing to commit their militaries to a war against the USSR. The new armistice also handed the whole of Petsamo over to the Soviet Union. After the Soviet offensive was halted, however, Ryti resigned. This led to a long period of relative calm in the front line, lasting until 1944. Most were dug in as pillboxes in the defensive lines, negating the mobility and armor issues compared to Russian … As the German offensive against the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) approached, the cooperation between the two countries intensified. In November 2003, the Simon Wiesenthal Center submitted an official request to Finnish President Tarja Halonen for a full-scale investigation by the Finnish authorities of the prisoner exchange.  • Lithuania Ken Redington recently popped together a Finnish force using the existing Finns but also cleverly adapted the Blitzkrieg Germans to fit in and expand his unique army: Ken: They are out!  • Comparative military ranks Around 100,000 people lost their homes, adding to the burden of post-war reconstruction. Farber, Henry S. and Gowa, Joanne. However, material support from other countries was small and none of Finland's neighbours were willing to commit their militaries to a war against the USSR. Hitta (och spara!) The attack was denounced by the League of Nations and, as a result, the Soviet Union was expelled from that body on 14 December. The high number of fatalities was mainly due to malnutrition and diseases.  • Crossbow The resulting war was known to the Finns as the Continuation War. Initially the warfare was cautious on both sides, reflecting the previous cooperation of the two countries against their common enemy, but by the end of 1944 the fighting intensified. [18], On 9 June 1944, the Red Army launched a major strategic offensive against Finland, attaining vast numerical superiority and surprising the Finnish army.  • Philippines (1944–1945), • Vistula–Oder  • First Indochina War Finnish armored forces got their first equipment from France in 1919-1921, when the newly independent state acquired 32 FT-17′s. In subsequent years the position of Finland was unique in the Cold War. Before that several other military units had also been formed while Finland belonged to Sweden. This attack pushed the Finnish forces approximately to the same positions as they were holding at the end of the Winter War. Numerically and technologically speaking, the massive Soviet force had a tremendous advantage over the smaller Finnish army and should have made short work of any opposition provided by the Finns.  • Lend-Lease In January 1918, the Eduskunta ordered General Carl Mannerheim to use local Finnish White Guards to disarm Finnish Red Guards and Russian troops in the country, which began on 27 January and led to the beginning of the Finnish Civil War. Annually, the Army’s eight brigade-level units train around 20,000 conscripts. Finland then turned to Nazi Germany for military aid. About 19,000 Soviet prisoners of war died in Finnish prison camps during the Continuation War, which means that about 30% of Soviet POWs taken by the Finns did not survive. ", Nordling, Carl O. ISBN. During the Continuation War (1941–1944) Finland's wartime government claimed to be a co-belligerent of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, and abstained from signing the Tripartite Pact.  • Operation Paperclip [16] The Finnish people were worn down and could no longer hold out against such vast, well-supplied numbers. The second front was in central Karelia, where the Soviet forces were to advance to the city of Oulu, cutting the country in half. Finland entered into the Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (YYA Treaty) with the Soviet Union in which the Soviet Union agreed to the neutral status of Finland.  •  • Hungary [30] In the subsequent study by Professor Heikki Ylikangas it turned out that about 2,000 of the exchanged prisoners joined the Russian Liberation Army. ... Finnish E-tool, WW2 model, surplus 25.99 USD Temporarily out of stock. During World War II, Finland was in many ways a unique case. Futhermore, Finnish army used small manevrous strike-group’s, like rangers. It was a country which sided with Germany, but in which native Jews and almost all refugees were safe from persecution. During the period of Russian rule the country generally prospered.  • Soviet Union (Barbarossa) With the failure of two of its three offensives by the end of December, the Soviet headquarters ordered a cessation of operations. Finland entered a personal union with the Russian Empire as a grand duchy with extensive autonomy. A secret clause of this agreement marked Finland as part of the Soviet sphere of influence. The first camp was set up on 24 October 1941, in Petrozavodsk. dina egna pins på Pinterest. The treaty imposed heavy war reparations on Finland and stipulated the lease of the Porkkala area near the Finnish capital Helsinki as a military base for fifty years. On 23 August 1939 Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Finland was the only European country bordering the Soviet Union and still unoccupied by 1945. The Finnish units were raised in provinces.  • Korsun–Cherkassy There are a total of [ 39 ] WW2 Finnish Aircraft (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. The country was heavily influenced by the Soviet Union, but was the only country on the Soviet pre-World War II border to retain democracy and a market economy. The Soviet Union fielded four armies composed of 16 divisions and another three were being brought into position; meanwhile, the Finnish army had 9 smaller divisions. Finnish President Mauno Koivisto also expressed similar views in 1993. As part of the Paris Peace Treaty, Finland was classified as an ally of Nazi Germany, bearing its responsibility for the war. A period of frantic diplomatic efforts and rearmament followed. On 12 October the Soviet Union started negotiations with Finland concerning parts of Finnish territory, the Karelian Isthmus, the Gulf of Finland islands and the Hanko Peninsula. [8] By late December, the two main fronts had come to a standstill as the Finns were counterattacking with more strength and the Soviets were being bogged down.  • Atomic bombings Finland was one of Germany's most important allies in the attack on the Soviet Union, allowing German troops to be based in Finland before the attack and joining in the attack on the USSR almost immediately. The Moscow armistice was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War, though the final peace treaty was not to be signed until 1947 in Paris. [15] A demanding peace proposal was sent to Finland by Molotov in mid-February, claiming more land for the USSR and significant diplomatic and military sanctions. During the period of Russian rule the country generally prospered. Eventually the Soviet offensive was fought to a standstill in the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, while still tens or hundreds of kilometres in front of the main Finnish line of fortifications, the Salpa Line. [18] The Finnish people were worn down and could no longer hold out against such vast, well-supplied numbers. The worsening situation in 1944 had led to Finnish president Risto Ryti giving Germany his personal guarantee that Finland would not negotiate peace with the Soviet Union for as long as he was the president. An official state-sponsored memorial to the fallen of the Finnish unit stands in Helsinki. The Finnish State Aircraft Factory at Tampere went into license-production with the Dutch Fokker C.X two-seat bomber and reconnaissance plane in 1938. [24], When the Finnish Army controlled East Karelia between 1941 and 1944, several concentration camps were set up for Russian civilians.  • Pearl Harbor [1], After the Eastern Front and peace negotiations between the Bolsheviks and Germany collapsed, the German troops intervened in Finland and occupied Helsinki. In 1918 the Finnish Civil War broke out between the generally right-wing government supporters and left-wing rebels. The Germans adopted a scorched-earth policy, and proceeded to lay waste to the entire northern half of the country as they retreated. A new government with Juho Kusti Paasikivi as prime minister, pursued a pro-German policy and sought to annex Russian Karelia, which had a Finnish-speaking majority despite never being part of Finland. See more ideas about finnish, world war two, army. In December 1941, the Finnish army took defensive positions. Finnish M05 grenade pouch M10 51.99 USD Now available. [25], Finnish Jews were not persecuted, and even among extremists of the Finnish Right they were highly tolerated, as many leaders of the movement came from the clergy. Finnish Air Force. The mines caused many military and civilian casualties, particularly in Lapland. [29], About 2,600–2,800 Soviet prisoners of war were handed over to the Germans in exchange for roughly 2,200 Finnic prisoners of war held by the Germans. Jews in Finland During the Second World War, The Simon Wiesenthal Center, press information, Heikki Ylikankaan selvitys Valtioneuvoston kanslialle, http://www.kolumbus.fi/rastas/nyky/reasons_ww2.html, An essay about Jews in Finland during World War II, Jaeger Platoon: Finnish Army 1918–1945 Web Site, History of World War II by region and country, Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, and British North Borneo, Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the United States, Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in World War II, Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Finland_during_World_War_II?oldid=5338851, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Forster, Kent. Due to the war, elections could not be held, and therefore the Parliament selected the Marshal of Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, the Finnish commander-in-chief, as president and charged him with negotiating a peace.  • Iran Finland was Nazi Germany’s co-belligerent in WW2* as being attacked by the Soviet Union in 1939, but only received limited assistance, first from the West (France and UK) and up to 1944, from Germany. Relative strengths of Finnish, German and Soviet troops at the start of the Continuation War in June 1941. During this period the Finns are known to have been harassing supply columns and even carrying out raids against fortified Soviet positions. On 9 June 1944 the Soviet Army launched its attack on Finland deploying five armies totalling 450,000 men and 10,000 guns. [10] By late December, the two main fronts had come to a standstill as the Finns were counterattacking with more strength and the Soviets were being bogged down. [4] The Soviet invasion was intended to be a liberation of the 'Red Finns', with the eventual annexation of Finland into the USSR. As relations with the Soviet Union changed during the war, Finland was placed in the situation of being for, then against and then for the overall interests of the Allied powers. Recycled items, crafts and other DIY materials. The Finnish army expelled the last of the foreign troops from their soil in April 1945. Mannerheim favoured intervention against the Bolsheviks but suspicion of the White Russians who refused to recognise Finnish independence led to his aggressive policy being overruled, then the Bolshevik victory in Russia forestalled Finnish hostilities. Operation Barbarossa began on 22 June 1941. On 25 June the Soviet Union launched an air raid against Finnish cities, after which Finland declared war and also allowed German troops stationed in Finland to begin offensive warfare. "The Great Powers and Finland 1941–1944,", Kelly, Bernard.  • Occupation of Germany The Finnish front had become a sideshow for the Soviet leadership, as they were in a race to reach Berlin before the Western Allies. The Germans adopted a scorched-earth policy, and proceeded to lay waste to the entire northern half of the country as they retreated. By December 27 it was observed that the Soviet forces were digging on the Karelian Isthmus. [5] Strategic goals of the Red Army included cutting Finland in half and capture Petsamo in the north and Helsinki in the south.  • Okinawa Defensive arrangements were attempted with Sweden and Great Britain, but the political and military situation in the context of the Second World War rendered these efforts fruitless. The very first attack on November 30, 1939 was an aerial bombardment of the city of Helsinki and all along the Finnish-Soviet border. The first two major conflicts in which Finland was directly involved were the defensive Winter War against an invasion by the Soviet Union in 1939, followed by the Continuation War, together with Germany and the other Axis Powers against the Soviets, in 1941–1944. This, and the heavy casualties inflicted on the Red Army by the Finns, led to the transfer of most troops from the Finnish front. [13] It seemed that the Red Army had inexhaustible amounts of ammunition and supplies, as attacks were always preceded by barrages, followed by aerial assaults and then random troop movements against the lines. As part of the Paris Peace Treaty, Finland was classified as an ally of Nazi Germany, bearing its responsibility for the war. On 26 November the Soviet Union accused the Finnish army of shelling the village of Mainila. Everything relating to the Finnish army, old and new, can be found right here!  • Czechoslovakia The war had caused great damage to infrastructure and the economy.  • Gothic Line Finnish military and government leaders saw that the only thing left to do was to negotiate a peace treaty with Moscow. As a result of this territorial loss, all East Karelians abandoned their homes, relocating to areas that remained within the borders of Finland. The Soviet Union fielded four armies composed of 16 divisions and another three were being brought into position; meanwhile, the Finnish army had 9 smaller divisions. [36], Finland never signed the Tripartite Pact, but was aided in its military assault on the Soviet Union by Germany from the beginning of Operation Barbarossa in 1941, and in its defence against Soviet attacks in 1944 prior to the separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. Message Urging Finland to Break with Nazi Germany. Machine-gun armed version of the Renault FT in Finnish service, the Naaras (18 in service). Moreover, during the war, Finland kept its army outside the German command structure despite numerous attempts by the Germans to tie them more tightly together. In spite of this, Finland retained an independent, democratic form of government. However, about 1000 POWs are believed to have been executed. Eventually the Soviet offensive was fought to a standstill in the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, while still tens or hundreds of kilometres in front of the main Finnish line of fortifications, the Salpa Line.  • Normandy The Moscow armistice was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War, though the final peace treaty was not to be signed until 1947 in Paris. Of all the European countries fighting, only three European capitals were never occupied: Moscow, London and Helsinki. On 6 December 1917, during the Russian Civil War, the Finnish parliament Suomen Eduskunta declared independence from Russia, which was accepted by the Bolshevik regime of the Soviet Union on 31 December. The country was heavily influenced by the Soviet Union, but was the only country on the Soviet pre-World War II border to retain democracy and a market economy.  • Hong Kong On February 11, 1940, the Soviets achieved a breakthrough in the Mannerheim Line that led to a series of Finnish retreats. Due to the war, elections could not be held, and therefore the Parliament selected the Marshal of Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, the Finnish commander-in-chief, as president and charged him with negotiating a peace. As a result of this territorial loss, many Finnish Karelians fled or were evacuated from their homes, relocating to areas that remained within the borders of Finland.  • Leyte [21], On 9 June 1944, the Red Army launched a major strategic offensive against Finland, attaining vast numerical superiority and surprising the Finnish army. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). The actual loss of life, however, was relatively light. [5][6] To this end, a puppet government, the "Finnish Democratic Republic" was established in Terijoki under the leadership of the exiled O. W. The Finnish military took part in the planning for Operation Barbarossa, and prepared to invade the Soviet Union alongside the Germans in the north, and independently in the south. On 4 September 1944 a ceasefire was agreed, and the Moscow armistice between Soviet Union and United Kingdom on one side and Finland on another was signed on 19 September.[23]. The Finnish Army was caught by surprise, largely because of the complacency of the Finnish High Command which had failed to take the necessary defensive precautions during the preceding years. A secret clause of this agreement marked Finland as part of the Soviet sphere of influence. A two-pronged attack, with one pincer engaging the Finnish forces on the Isthmus while the other went around Lake Ladoga in an attempt at encircling the defenders. Indeed, the long period of static positional warfare had undermined the morale of the troops and made the Red Army’s attack all the more successful. Some elements in Finland maintained the dream of "Greater Finland" which included the Soviet-controlled part of Karelia. German troops arrived in Finland and took up positions, mostly in Lapland, from where they would invade the Soviet Union. During the summer and autumn of 1941 the Finnish Army was on the offensive, retaking the territories lost in the Winter War. "Polities and Peace", Russert, Bruce.  • Neptune Finnish Jews were not persecuted, and even among extremists of the Finnish Right they were highly tolerated, as many leaders of the movement came from the clergy. 2020-11-11 - Explore Grzegorz Gembala's board "Finnish Army in WW2", followed by 499 people on Pinterest.  • Tempest In December 1941, the Finnish army took defensive positions. Learn more about the Russo-Finnish War in … [29], • Yugoslavia As a result, some political scientists name it as one of the few instances where a democratic country was engaged in a war against one or more other democratic countries, namely the democracies in the Allied forces. Part 2: Pistols and Submachine guns (UPDATED) Part 3: Other Infantry Weapons. With mixed equipment and nearly as mixed reputation, they still form an interesting part of Finnish Army’s endeavors in WW2. The period of peace following the Winter War was widely regarded in Finland as temporary, even when peace was announced in March 1940. Finally, the armistice also demanded that Finland must expel German troops from its territory, which was the cause of the Lapland War.  • Pointblank  • Yugoslav Front Finland and Germany had made an informal agreement and schedule for German troops to withdraw from Lapland to Norway. Mannerheim was elected regent by the Eduskunta and Finnish policy became pro-Entente as the western powers intervened in the Russian Civil War (7 November 1917 – 16 June 1923). Of approximately 500 Jewish refugees, eight were handed over to the Germans, a fact for which Finnish prime minister Paavo Lipponen issued an official apology in 2000. The attack was denounced by the League of Nations and, as a result, the Soviet Union was expelled from that body on 14 December. She wa… Operation Barbarossa began on 22 June 1941. Finland also agreed to legalize communist parties and ban fascist organizations. Finland participated in the Second World War initially in a defensive war against the Soviet Union, followed by another battle with the Soviet Union acting in concert with Nazi Germany and then finally fighting alongside the Allies against Nazi Germany. However, the war had exhausted Finnish resources and it was believed that the country would not be able to hold another major attack. This put the Finnish people on the defensive without having to make any decision, unifying the once divided country.  • Philippines  • Ardennes During the Continuation War (1941–1944) Finland was co-belligerent with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, and dependent on food, fuel and armament shipments from Germany. "Drifting Towards War: The British Chiefs of Staff, the USSR and the Winter War, November 1939 – March 1940. [2], Paasikivi led a delegation to Tartu in Estonia with instructions to establish a frontier from lake Ladoga in the south, via Lake Onega to the White Sea in the north. After Poland’s defeat in the autumn of 1939, the Soviet Union, wishing to safeguard Leningrad, demanded from Finland a minor part of the Karelian Isthmus, a naval base at Hanko (Hangö), and some islands in the Gulf of Finland.When Finland rejected the demand, the Soviet Union launched an attack on November 30, 1939, beginning the Russo-Finnish … In exchange Germany delivered weapons to the Finns. [1], After the extinction of the Hohenzollern monarchy on 9 November 1918, Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent, German troops left Finland and British ships cruised in the Baltic. This led to a long period of relative calm in the front line, lasting until 1944. The second front was in central Karelia, where the Soviet forces were to advance to the city of Oulu, cutting the country in half. Finland was dependent on food, fuel, and armament shipments from Germany during this period, and was influenced to sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, a less formal alliance than the Tripartite Pact seen as by the Nazi leadership as a "litmus test of loyalty". By March 13, 1940 the Winter War was officially over, the Moscow Peace Treaty was signed and the Soviet Union had gained more territory than it originally demanded.[17]. The reparations were reduced by 25% in 1948 by the Soviet Union and were paid off in 1952. The problem with numbers was a Finnish issue as they had to defend a border that was some 1287 km (800 miles) in length, presenting the defenders with a significant disadvantage.  • Surrender of Germany The conditions for peace were similar to those previously agreed in the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty, with Finland being forced to cede parts of Finnish Karelia, a part of Salla and islands in the Gulf of Finland. On 25 June the Soviet Union launched a massive pre-emptive air raid against Finnish cities, after which Finland declared war and also allowed German troops stationed in Finland to begin offensive warfare. The Karelian Isthmus and the area of Lake Ladoga was the primary focus of the Soviet war effort.  • Military equipment FORMATIONS (Tables of Organisation and Equipment): Formations 1: Finnish Civil War 1918 By the end of hostilities, Finland remained an independent country, albeit "Finlandized", but had to cede nearly 10% of its territory, including its fourth largest city, Viipuri (Vyborg), pay out a large amount of war reparations to the Soviet Union, and formally acknowledge partial responsibility for the Continuation War. The Soviet Union kept up intense pressure on Finland, thereby hastening the Finnish efforts to improve the security of the country.  • Sevastopol Zeiler, Thomas W.; DuBois, Daniel M., eds (2013). The Finnish Army is part of the Finnish Defence Forces. [citation needed].  • Morgenthau Plan During World War II, Finland was anomalous: It was the only European country bordering the Soviet Union in 1939 which was still unoccupied by 1945. During the Continuation War (1941–1944) Finland was co-belligerent with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, and dependent on food, fuel and armament shipments from Germany. Soviets at first have a great casualities with small success. Although Finland was never de jure member of Axis powers, as it never signed the Tripartite Pact, it was a companion of Germany from the beginning of Operation Barbarossa 1941 to separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. [16], The tenacity of the Finnish people, both military and civilian, in the face of a superior opponent gained the country much sympathy throughout the world.  • Military production  • Tannenberg Line Of these, 14 had 37mm Puteaux gun, rest were machine-gun versions. By the end of hostilities, Finland managed to defend its independence, but had to cede nearly 10% of its territory, including its second largest city, Viipuri, and pay out a large amount of war reparations, to the Soviet Union. This put the Finnish people on the defensive without having to make any decision, unifying the once divided country. ... the future Commander in Chief in the Swedish Army, was going to suggest that one Army Group, consisted of two divisions, should be mobilized to protect the Norrbotten territory. Dec 3, 2017 - Explore Miro Mirovec's board "WWII uniforms - Finnish army" on Pinterest. [25] The Finnish leadership adhered to many written and oral agreements on practical co-operation with Germany during the conflict. On 4 September 1944 a ceasefire was agreed, and the Moscow armistice was signed on 19 September. Finland, however, was never a strong supporter of Nazi Germany and felt that an alliance with Hitler would help ensure that the country would remain independent. From the autumn of 1944, the Finnish army and navy performed many mine clearance operations, especially in Karelia, Lapland and the Gulf of Finland. The Karelian Isthmus and the area of Lake Ladoga was the primary focus of the Soviet war effort. Finnish military and government leaders had seen that the only thing left to do was to negotiate a peace treaty with Moscow.  • West Hunan During this period, starting at 1941 but especially after the major German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad, intermittent peace inquiries took place. These aircraft were used until the end of WW2. The Finnish army expelled the last of the foreign troops from their soil in April 1945. Fate of the Finnish Army after WW2. Arms purchases were balanced between East and West until the fall of the Soviet Union. Infantry Division 1939 Infantry Divisions 30 November 1939: Division: Infantry: Artillery: Engineers: Others: 4th Division [1] COL B. Nordenswan [2] 10 Infantry Regiment 11 Infantry Regiment [3] These raids were unsuccessful. However the view that Finland only fought separately during the second world war remains controversial within Finland and was not generally accepted outside Finland. Then, Soviets inveted new tactic against bunkers and broke Mannerheim’s line. The Finns have come back out in a new way (typically just after I started my new army!)  • Project Hula  • Shumshu, • Attacks on North America Porkkala was returned to Finnish control in 1956. In exchange Germany delivered weapons to the Finns. Sotilasvirkamies ): Pistols and Submachine guns ( UPDATED ) part 3: other Infantry Weapons government leaders had that! Kelly, Bernard early 20th century Russia tightened its grip on Finland, widespread... 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