The numbers related to the first search with publication cutoff date of October 2013 for scientific peer-reviewed articles and January 2014 for grey-literature are listed with n1, and n2 is numbers related to the second search with publication cutoff date of May 2015. Am J Community Psychol. 1: Flow diagram of selection process 220) First, rate each characteristic by clicking on a radio button to the left. X coordinate effectively during response (55, 65); open communication during crisis (13); flow of information in real time (64); communications infrastructure and technology (61); coordinated communication system or network (22))Effective communication(e.g. Planning for a Resilient Community 13 Visual 26 The Planner’s Role in Risk Reduction This section describes three major roles that a planner has in reducing risk in a community: planning to reduce risk, mitigating risk, and advocating for community resilience. English. IFRC Framework for Community Resilience 10 The Red Cross and Red Crescent recogniz-es the richness of the term ‘community’ and appreciates that communities exist in many shapes and forms. A community’s assessing vulnerabilities, developing resilient infrastructure, establishing memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response leads to mitigation of an event long before the actual impact. Community resilience is defined by the capacity for a broad community to acknowledge and respond to acute shocks and long term stresses. Further progress on these and other questions might be best met by disaggregating the issues from the global concept of community resilience. an ability to maintain stable functioning); and 3) ‘range of attributes’ definitions (i.e. 4) 4), Beyond the resilience of individuals or individual organisations, your community will prove resilient in the event of a severe emergency or disaster when members of the population are connected to one another and work together, so that they are able to: 1) function and sustain critical systems, even under stress; 2) adapt to changes in the physical, social or economic environment; 3) be self-reliant if external resources are limited or cut off; 4) learn from experience to improve over time (pg. 2015 February 1, 2015;59(2):220-37. (78) 1732) In present study we refer to Community resilience as the community’s ability to withstand crises or disruptions (pg. 452), The ability of a system and its component parts to anticipate, absorb, accommodate or recover from the effects of a hazardous event in a timely and efficient manner, including through ensuring the reservation, restoration or improvement of its essential basic structures and functions. A psychosocial risk assessment and management framework to enhance response to CBRN terrorism threats and attacks. The capacity to speed recovery by taking action in advance to identify and reduce vulnerabilities is known as resilience (pg. X Community size played a role in some of these perceptions. Health Other issues 14 6. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. PubMed PMID: 2013-29963-014. X Effective Communication (pgs. We initially completed a systematic literature search with no start date and a publication cut-off date of October 2013 for scientific peer-reviewed articles and of January 2014 for grey literature. knowledge of self-reliance, self-help, and self-sufficiency (22); self-reliance (96); recovery mechanisms (69); sense of coherence (102); capacity for generative experiences and positive emotions (25, 27); self-efficacy (80); community competence, collective efficacy, empowerment (52, 66); individual believes that s/he has the resources needed to deal with situations (102))Training and education(e.g. Disaster Risk Reduction is the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events. Possible determinants in classifying the elements might include the type of disaster, a community’s culture, and whether the element is measured before, during or after a disaster. 2011 Identify resilience characteristics: What are the characteristics of a resilient community? The literature however shows ambiguity about the characteristics of urban resilience, while substantive progress has been made in the practice of resilience building in urban communities. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 241) More than the ability of members to cope individually, community resilience involves interactions as a collective unit. X X 241), As described in the current online CART manual, the CART Assessment Survey is based on a four-factor model of community resilience characterized by four interrelated CART domains: (a) Connection and Caring (including relatedness, participation, shared values, support and nurturance, equity, justice, hope, and diversity); (b) Resources (including natural, physical, information, human, social, and financial resources); (c) Transformative Potential (deriving from the ability of communities to frame collective experiences, collect and analyse relevant data, assess community performance, and build skills); and (d) Disaster Management (addressing prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery). Characteristics of a resilient community 9 2.1 Applications 10 2.2 Selecting characteristics; setting priorities 10 2.3 Characteristics and indicators 10 2.4 Composite characteristics 11 resilient community actually looks like; and how indicators could be developed from this. Resilience refers to the capacity of an individual, household, population group or system to anticipate, absorb, and recover from hazards and/or effects of climate change and other shocks and stresses without compromising (and potentially enhancing) long-term prospects. 2015 February 1, 2015;59(2):181-99. 314), Community resilience is the capability to anticipate risk, limit impact, and bounce back rapidly through survival, adaptability, evolution, and growth in the face of turbulent change (pg. Uscher-Pines L, Chandra A, Acosta J. Step 2. Pfefferbaum RL, Pfefferbaum B, Nitiéma P, Houston JB, Van Horn RL. ], California Department of Public Health. Development and Psychopathology. Epub 2004/12/01. Resilience is built through social, political, economic and cultural networks that reach from the local to the global scale (pgs. London, UK 2010. p. 1-25. World Vision, Rumsey R. Disaster risk reduction and community resilience: Key concepts and practices. 158), Community seismic resilience is defined as the ability of social units (e.g., organizations, communities) to mitigate hazards, contain the effects of disasters when they occur, and carry out recovery activities in ways that minimize social disruption and mitigate the effects of future earthquakes. X 20-21), Effective recovery can be achieved only where the affected community participates fully in the recovery process and where it has the capacity, skills and knowledge to make its participation meaningful (pg.6) A community’s capacities, skills, and knowledge that allow it to participate fully in recovery from disasters [inferred by (52) on p. 129], Community resilience refers to “the capacity of a human community, whether a city, a region, or some other collectivity, to sustain itself through crises that challenge its physical environment and social fabric” (pg. 460), A resilient community is one that takes intentional action to enhance the personal and collective capacity of its citizens and institutions to respond to, and influence the course of social and economic change (pg. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR; 2013. We hypothesize resilience as a protective process with the capacity for orienting and leading coping abilities toward a successful outcome in a population exposed to a natural disaster. In fact, research has shown that senior adults can exhibit traits of high resilience regardless of their socioeconomic background, life experiences or health challenges. a broad collection of response-related abilities). The identification of the characteristics provides a scenario of resilient urban community, and it also gives the direction for fostering the urban community resilience. In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly. (67) Bonanno25 examined the evidence on resilience based on loss and trauma among adults and defined it as an ability of adults to “maintain relatively stable, healthy levels of psychological and physical functioning (p.20).” Contrasting to the first type of definition, Gibson56 stated in a paper exploring the 2009 Victorian Bushfire in Australia that “…resilience is not a process, it is not a management system standard, nor is it a consulting product. (Community resilience or neighbourhood resilience or neighbourhood resilience or social resilience or social capital) AND (disaster or flood* or volcano or hurricane? Oklahoma City, OK: Terrorism and Disaster Center at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center; 2011. The authors argue that this ambiguity does not make the term meaningless but that researchers and professionals should understand that a diverse range of meanings exist, especially when considering interventions85. eng. Resilience. BMC Health Serv Res. X (pg. In: Kilmer RP, Gil-Rivas V, Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG, editors. When disasters occur, recovery depends on the community’s ability to withstand the effects of the event. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation: Cambridge University Press; 2012. Trajectory: adaptation leads to a positive outcome for the community relative to its Abramson DM, Grattan LM, Mayer B, Colten CE, Arosemena FA, Bedimo-Rung A, et al. Risk communication(e.g. PubMed PMID: 2014-57459-020. 2007 2007;75(5):671-82. 2015 X Community disaster vulnerability: Theory, research, and practice. 2013 158) X (13) PubMed PMID: 2013-15898-002. X 349) Governance/ leadership: Governance and leadership shape how communities handle crises. (pg. 106), In the context of hazards, the concept spans both pre-event measures that seek to prevent disaster-related damage and post-event strategies designed to cope with and minimize disaster impacts (pg. Step 3. X Even when governments and organizations can help, their resources are often stretched. Greene G, Turley R, Mann M, Amlôt R, Page L, Palmer S. Differing community responses to similar public health threats: A cross-disciplinary systematic literature review. International Journal of Indigenous Health. Guha-Sapir D, Hoyois P, Below R. Annual disaster statistical review 2012: The numbers and trends. 2011 (pg. (21) or (framework or taxonomy), Resilien* AND (defin* or fram*) AND (disaster or flood* or volcano or hurricane? 56) 2015 Jan;124:162-70. an ongoing process of change and adaptation); 2) ‘absence of adverse effect’ definitions (i.e. X 268), Disaster mitigation beings long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster…The resilience of a community overwhelmed by a disastrous situation may be measured in the difference between a response with a sense of hope, community pride, and resourcefulness and one filled with despair, hopelessness, and blame. 599), A process linking a set of networked adaptive capacities to a positive trajectory of functioning and adaptation in a constituent populations after a disturbance (pg. (pg. X 13) Epub 2013/01/29. The core elements were: local knowledge, community networks and relationships, communication, health, governance and leadership, resources, economic investment, preparedness, and mental outlook. Rather than define disaster resilience, the Strategy focuses on the common characteristics of disaster resilient communities, individuals and organisations. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the Department of Veterans Affairs: a conceptual model for understanding the evacuation of nursing homes. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Ltd.; 2007. p. 260-1. Within the first 60 unique links, we extracted any publications that appeared relevant for further examination (e.g. Resilience is a demonstrable outcome of an organization’s capability to cope with uncertainty and change in an often volatile environment. Thus community provides an opportunity for a collective to adaptively cope with the experience of a potentially traumatic event. or (framework or taxonomy) X 6), Resilience – the ability to go through trauma and to introject meaning into one’s own life (pg. (pg. Community Resilience The research team followed a five-step process to identify commonly used indicators from current community resilience research. Cox R, Perry K. Like a fish out of water: Reconsidering disaster recovery and the role of place and social capital in community disaster resilience. The construct of resilience can be defined as a process or the attainment of positive outcomes at the individual, family, and community levels despite adversity (e.g., natural disaster, terrorist attack) (pg. Am J Community Psychol. Even more broadly, Pfefferbaum and colleagues60 generally defined resilience “as an attribute (e.g., ability, capacity), a process, and/or an outcome associated with successful adaption to, and recovery from adversity” and that it “differs depending on context and purpose (p. 241-242).”. New York: Rockefeller Foundation & Arup International Development; 2015. Epub 2011/02/03. physical health (15, 22, 23, 55); physical functioning (25, 27))Mental health(e.g. (pg. (66) Residents of larger communities were more likely to agree that their community looks at its successes and failures to learn from the past, keeps people informed about relevant issues, actively prepares for disasters, and trusts local leaders to respond to emergency situations. Resilience is thus a product of an organization’s capabilities interacting with its environment (pg. PubMed PMID: 2014-57046-007. Within the definitions, we identified nine main elements and 19 sub-elements that have been proposed as important within the concept of community resilience, shown in supplementary Table 2. We found two sub-elements within governance and leadership: infrastructure and services, and public involvement and support. Epub 2015/05/12. World Vision; 2014. PubMed PMID: 2014-57046-006. In part, this is determined by how much a community is capable of self-organisation to maximise risk reduction measures and apply learning from past disasters to forward-looking disaster preparedness. (pg. eng. To guard against this, we established an explicit set of inclusion criteria to use. 9) The foundation of the Resilience Activation Framework (RAF) is grounded in distinguishing resilience processes (the ability to withstand, adapt, or recover quickly from a disaster), individual and community resilience attributes, and the factors which facilitate the activation of those resilience attributes. X (59) Building resilience: Integrating climate and disaster risk into development. 17) Community/regional resilience is a function of the resilience of several subsystems, including but not necessarily limited to, the community/region’s economy, civil society, critical infrastructure, supply chains/dependencies, and governance (including emergency services) (pg.viii). It is the process by which residents of vulnerable and impacted communities define for themselves the complex climate challenges they face, and the climate solutions most relevant to their unique assets and threats. Click on a dimension heading to begin rating the characteristics and dimensions. 2013 Overall, as a process, community resilience is not an outcome. (pg. What the community knows and understands about their own processes to endure and respond to a disaster can be crucial in relief efforts especially if a community is dependent upon its own resources. PubMed PMID: 2014-11057-008. Moore M, Chandra A, Feeney KC. Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, Burton C, Evans E, Tate E, et al. 470] 1191), For clarity purposes, here we adopted the same definition as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which describes resilience as “the ability of a system and its component parts to anticipate, absorb, accommodate, or recover from the effects of a hazardous event in a timely and efficient manner, including through ensuring the preservation, restoration, or improvement of its essential basic structures and functions” (108). Resilience in the social and physical realms: Lessons from the gulf coast. (100) The Constituent Elements of Community Resilience Assessing community resilience: An application of the expanded CART survey instrument with affiliated volunteer responders. In spite of this, evidence was found of nine core elements of community resilience that were common among the definitions. 605), Building capacity for CDR [community disaster resilience] requires an approach suitable to integrating and coordinating the perspectives and skills of diverse stakeholders, including historically vulnerable groups, first responders, and experts in evidence-based approaches to improving outcomes, including for mental health consequences of disasters. 201-202), Supplementary Material Table 2. X 391) Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Salisbury, United Kingdom. X eng. (19) 3) Resilience is the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. London, UK: European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme; 2014. p. 24. The way we define community resilience affects how we attempt to measure and enhance it. It is proposed that mediating structures (e.g., schools, peer groups, family) and activity settings moderate the impact of oppressive systems and provide contexts for resilience and consciousness raising (pg. The ability of an entity – asset, organization, community, region – to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance (pg. Epub 2007/12/25. Potentially relevant publications were read in full. This was described by Chandra and colleagues22, who suggested the importance of strengthening: 1) personal and community preparedness; 2) civic responsibility; 3) effective bystander responses; and 4) self-and community-reliance. Or Chernobyl or Fukushima or earthquake) AND (definition?) Community Characteristics and Improving Community Resilience. English. [inferred as CR] (pg. Distributive justice. 2015 Stratta P, Capanna C, Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Patriarca S, Di Emidio G, et al. psychological health (22, 23); psychological functioning (25, 27); mental health (15, 55); coping (64); mental health wellness, trauma, PTSS and depression (66); PTSD (112); clinical distress (80)) Likewise, ‘community’ is a contested idea that makes different kinds of sense according to the value, location and perspective of the reader (pg. 6) QSR International Pty Ltd.; 2012. 2). X American journal of community psychology. CART (31,71) Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030. AboitizLand advances community resilience in Foressa Mountain Town 7 days ago Foressa Mountain Town in Cansomoroy, Balamban, Cebu has the 7 Cs of what makes communities inherently resilient. Building community resilience to disasters: A way forward to enhance national health security (techincal report). X This is an important limitation given that the resilience of individuals is inextricably linked to the resilience of the communities in which they live (pg. World Hospitals and Health Services. 279) Leykin D, Lahad M, Cohen O, Goldberg A, Aharonson-Daniel L. Conjoint community resiliency assessment measure-28/10 items (CCRAM28 and CCRAM10): A self-report tool for assessing community resilience. 2012 Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and community resilience: Lessons from the emergency response following the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. Cohen O, Leykin D, Lahad M, Goldberg A, Aharonson-Daniel L. The conjoint community resiliency assessment measure as a baseline for profiling and predicting community resilience for emergencies. Community resilience requires that the community as a whole must cope effectively with and learn from adversity. (pg. Cardiff, UK: Cardiff University; 2011. These 2003 (pg. Acts of violence such as war and terrorism were included in this review because there are strong similarities between aspects of community resilience to terrorism and war and aspects of community resilience to disasters. English. 2015 The International Journal of Human Resource Management. New York, NY: Springer Retrieved from https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9781461457367; 2013. Eight characteristics of specific resilience are drawn from these four performance dimensions, including the multi-functionality and flexibility of the community’s spatial patterns, the interactivity and diversity of the community’s environment components, the intelligence and humanity of the community’s public services, as well as the predication and collaboration of the community’s … X American Behavioral Scientist. Carlson J, Haffenden R, Bassett G, Buehring W, Collins III M, Folga S, et al. To begin rating each dimension, click on one of the section headings below. View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 17. These characteristics are functioning well while under stress, successful adaptation, self-reliance, and social capacity…Resilient communities also share the importance of social support systems, such as neighbourhoods, family and kinship networks, social cohesion, mutual interest groups, and mutual self-help groups. 1-5) Soc Indic Res. (103, 104) A Definition of the Resilient Person. 2010 Kirmayer LJ, Sehdev M, Whitley R, Dandeneau SF, Isaac C. Community resilience: Models, metaphors and measures. eng. PubMed PMID: 14736317. Community disaster resilience (CDR)-the ability of a community to survive and thrive in the face of uncertainty-is the foundation of rural life. An example of these definitions can be found in a publication by the UK Cabinet Office57 which defined community resilience, as “communities and individuals harnessing local resources and expertise to help themselves in an emergency, in a way that complements the response of the emergency services (p. 11)”. Guha-Sapir D, Vos F, Below R, Ponserre S. Annual disaster statistical review 2011: The numbers and trends. Risk Analysis. (56) (pg. PMCID: PMC3987831. This was defined as a community’s shared belief of its ability to overcome potential hardships caused by a disaster, for example through self-reliance. Local knowledge Beyond the resilience of individuals or individual organisations, your community will prove resilient in the event of a severe emergency or disaster when members of the population are connected to one another and work together, so that they are able to: 1) function and sustain critical systems, even under stress; 2) adapt to changes in the physical, social or economic environment; 3) be self-reliant if external resources are limited or cut off; 4) learn from experience to improve over time (pg. Carpenter A. X Building a resilient community involves more than assembling a collection of resilient individuals. Definitions of community resilience: An analysis. In essence, depending on one’s stance, community resilience can either be seen as an ongoing process of adaptation, the simple absence of negative effects, the presence of a range of positive attributes, or a mixture of all three. The work flow of urban community resilience characteristics analysis through case study is demonstrated. Abstract. In a recent review on assessment models and tools of community disaster resilience, Ostadtaghizadeh and colleagues59 produced a definition of community resilience now used by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction: the “ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions (p. 3).” This definition blended the general types of ‘absence of adverse effect’ definition and ‘range of positive attributes’ definition. 2003 2006 2006/01/01;3(2):77-101. Bonanno GA. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? 2015:1-10. 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